Causes of Poor Quality Sleep

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Causes of Poor Quality Sleep

Causes Quality of Poor Quality Sleep

Many experts regard that it is necessary to have adequate sleep in order to have a healthy brain and function at optimal efficiency. However, does improper sleep leads to a number of diseases? Let’s find out.

Poor Quality Sleep refers to the extent to which individuals face difficulties in falling asleep, maintaining sleep. It also involves waking up too early and feeling unrested after sleep. Poor sleep is an issue of concern among health practitioners as it limits the individual’s ability to function to their full capacity. It is slated to cause declines in physical and mental health, limitations in daily activities, and cognitive impairment.

Poor quality sleep is also associated with increased risk of hospitalization and increased mortality rates. Sexton defines poor quality sleep as the difficulty in the initiation and maintenance of nonrestorative sleep. Despite having many definitions of poor quality sleep, the distinctive theme among the descriptions is that they recognize the difficulty in attaining or maintaining restful sleep.

Rates of Poor Quality Sleep

Statistics provided by the National Sleep Foundation (2014) indicate that up to 45% of Americans claim that lack of adequate sleep affects their daily lives. On average, Americans sleep for 7 hours, and 35 minutes. They reported sleeping for longer working hours during non-work days and public holidays. The table below showcases a description of America’s sleep quality.

Poor quality Sleep Stats
sleep quality statistics in US 2014

In spite of sleeping for the recommended number of hours, 35% of Americans described their sleep quality as poor, and 20% indicated that they did not wake up feeling refreshed after sleeping.

Major Observations

The study also observed a correlation between individual income and group quality. Individuals whose earnings were lower than $20,000 reported having lower sleep quality. Poor quality sleep was also observed in people with lower educational levels and among groups of people aged between 30 and 64 years. Based on the statistics, poor quality sleep is an issue of concern as it affects up to a third of the U.S. population.

  1. Poor Quality Sleep and Depression

Various studies have indicated a relationship between poor quality sleep and depression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DFSM-IV-TR) provides diagnoses for major mental disorders. The depressive disorder involves symptoms such as depressed moods, loss of appetite, fatigue. Other symptoms include poor concentration, suicidal thoughts, worthlessness, and insomnia or hypersomnia. These are estimated to have last for a period of two weeks or more.

Poor Quality Sleep is linked to depression 
Poor Quality Sleep is linked to depression

The association between lack of sleep and depression was made in earlier centuries by philosophers such as Plato and Hippocrates. The philosophers established that patients with mental health conditions reported challenges in falling asleep. They also showed signs of waking up too early in the morning, maintaining sleep, disturbed sleep. Since then, researchers have been interested in the association between poor quality sleep and mental health problems.

Research on the Issue

Homework Help has stated that sleep problems are prevalent in both neurotic and endogenous depression. The researcher service providers discovered that psychological depression, also known as neurotic, was common in patients who reported challenges in falling asleep. On the other hand, biological depression, also known as endogenous, was common in patients who reported problems maintaining sleep and early morning awakenings. Therefore, there is a clear link between poor quality sleep and neurotic and endogenous depression.

  1. Poor Quality Sleep and Schizophrenia

There is a clear link between poor quality sleep and schizophrenia. DSM-IV TR Diagnostic Criteria for Schizophrenia involves symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized behavior, and loss of motivation. Poor sleep quality is associated with schizophrenia, a mental health condition that is characterized by experiences and behavior that are out of touch with reality.

It is estimated that 1% of the global population is impacted by schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia show less deep sleep and poor sleep continuity. According to Kaskie, Graziano, and Ferrarelli (2017), poor quality sleep is an indicator of schizophrenia, and it is used to determine individuals who are likely to determine schizophrenia in later stages. Sleep disturbances may result in brain changes that increase the likelihood of getting schizophrenia.

Schizophrenia also causes poor quality sleep as patients report having disturbed sleep, insomnia, and lack of good sleep quality. Lack of sleep is among the indicators that an individual could be having schizophrenia.

Research on the Issue

Health practitioners report that patients with severe sleep abnormalities also have severe cases of schizophrenia. As a result, poor quality sleep increases the likelihood of getting schizophrenia. It also worsens schizophrenia symptoms for individuals who have already been diagnosed with the disorder. Therefore, addressing poor-quality sleep will lead to positive implications for schizophrenia.

  1. Poor Quality Sleep and Anxiety

Poor quality sleep is associated with severe anxiety symptoms. DSM-IV TR Diagnostic Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder includes symptoms such as restlessness, fatigue, irritability, problems concentrating, disturbed sleep, and muscle tension for a period of six months or more.

Research on the Issue

A study by Ramsawh, Stein, Belik, Jacobi, and Sareen (2009) discovered that anxiety disorders were more pronounced in patients with sleep disorders. The study also indicated that poor sleep results in worsening anxiety, quality of life, and increased likelihood of disability when compared with patients who only have anxiety.

The results of the study indicate that poor quality sleep worsens anxiety and lowers the quality of life for individuals with anxiety.

  1. Poor Quality Sleep and Bipolar Disorders

Poor quality sleep is a symptom of bipolar disorder. DSM-IV TR Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar Disorder includes irritable moods accompanied by at least one of the symptoms such as impulsivity, increased goal-directed behavior, feelings of grandiosity, easily distractible, and reduced need for sleep. There is a correlation between poor quality sleep and the worsening of quality of life in individuals with bipolar disorder.

Research on the Issue

A study presented by Giglio, Andreazza(2009) observed that poor quality sleep leads to negative symptoms for individuals who are diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

The study involved 190 participants who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The participants were categorized into two groups. One group being comprised of individuals experiencing poor quality sleep, and the other group being comprised of individuals without the presence of sleep disorders.

The study indicated that individuals experiencing sleep disturbances are more likely to have a low quality of life and global function. Similarly, having poor quality sleep translates to the worsening of bipolar disorder symptoms.

  1. Poor Sleep and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD is more prevalent in people exhibiting sleep disorders. ADHD is related to symptoms associated with sleep disorders such as limb movements in sleep. Rhythm movement disorders such as headbanging. Partial arousal disorders such as sleepwalking, and delayed sleep phase syndrome.

Kid Health
Kid Health

Research on the Issue

The study reported an increased association between ADHD and hypersomnia. The results of the study indicate that ADHD is prevalent in individuals with sleep disorders. Also, the study shows that people who are experiencing sleep disorders are more likely to have ADHD.

Major Causes of Poor Quality Sleep

Mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and ADHD have already been linked to sleep disorders. However, there are other causes of poor quality sleep that increase the likelihood of being impacted by mental disorders. Other causes of poor sleep quality include personality dimensions, environmental factors, and medical factors.

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